Thursday, June 25, 2020

What to Do in a Down Stock Market

The notice at the bottom of every advertisement for a 529 savings plan includes the warning: "Accounts may lose value." Millions of disheartened parents are now all-too-aware of just how accurate that statement is as they open their account statements and see that their 529 savings accounts have, in fact, lost money. The stock market swoon of recent weeks has not only caused account values to drop but in many cases has created losses as balances drop below original contributions. So what are parents to do as they fret about losing money in their college savings accounts at the same time that college costs continue their relentless rise? Here are some suggestions, based on the current age of your child. Ages 0-10 Take a deep breath and resist the urge to flee your 529 plan. Of course your account is down, but going forward the stock market still offers the best chances for your college savings account to appreciate at a rate equal to or faster than college cost increases. You'll have to stomach the ups and downs along the way but, if history is any guide, you should be rewarded in the end. In fact, with stocks currently on saleï ¿ ½at least according to Warren Buffetï ¿ ½you may want to pump as much cash as you can into your 529 plan. By investing in your 529 plan's age-based option, you'll be in position to benefit from a stock market rebound and can rest assured that by the time your child gets close to college age, your account will have automatically been switched to lower-risk bonds, money market, and/or stable-value funds. Ages 11-16 Any money you already have in your 529 plan has probably taken a hit, but you have at least a couple of years before the college bills start coming. Are you bullish on the stock market over the mid-term, or do you think the sinking economy suggests a protracted bear market? If you are bullish and willing to accept some market risk, you may want to switch to one of the "static" options in your 529 plan that stays invested mostly in stocks. Sticking with an age-based investment option has the unfortunate consequence of locking in your current losses as it shifts from stocks to bonds and money market funds. If you believe the market still has substantial downside momentum, you may want to head in the opposite direction and switch now to the most conservative option in your 529 planï ¿ ½either a money market portfolio, guaranteed or stable-value portfolio, or bank CD option. Ages 17 and older You are going to be pulling your money out of the 529 plan over the next few years, so why take on the risk of a volatile stock market? If you've been using your 529 plan's age-based option, you should be feeling relatively well-protected as most accounts in the age-based portfolios for college students and soon-to-be college students have held up nicely so far this year. However, if you opted for a 100% equity option, you are feeling substantial pain as the realization hits home that the depressed value of your account means you may have to take on more college loans than originally planned. If you don't have enough saved in your 529 plan to cover the full cost of college, you may want to target the use of your 529 funds to the last couple of years of college, hoping for a recovery in the meantime. Otherwise, you should consider cutting your losses and switching to the money market or guaranteed option in your 529 plan so as not to suffer any more if the markets were to continue hea ding south. All ages If you decide to switch investment options in your 529 plan, remember that your plan will allow only one switch in any calendar year. You can also change investments via rollover to another 529 plan, but only one tax-free rollover is permitted in any 12-month period. In either eventï ¿ ½investment switch or rolloverï ¿ ½the timing restrictions can be avoided if you change beneficiary at the same time. For example, with two children, you have maximum flexibility, since beneficiaries can be changed between siblings as often as you wish with no consequences. (Warning: intergenerational beneficiary changes can give rise to gift-tax problems.) With stock values at such low levels, you might want to consider making some tax-saving moves with your college savings. One such strategy would be to liquidate and request a refund all of your 529 accounts, but only if they net out to a loss. You pay no federal tax or penalty, and the loss can be claimed as a miscellaneous itemized deduction on your income tax return. The problem with this strategy is that miscellaneous itemized deductions may offer little or no tax relief due to the 2%-of-adusted-gross-income threshold as well as the workings of the alternative minimum tax. Then the question becomes what to do with the proceeds. If you want to put the money back into a 529 plan you'll have to watch out for the "wash sale" rules, for unintended rollover treatment, and for gift-tax consequences. You also need to look into the consequences of any such move on your state income taxes. An even better tax-saving strategy might be to take advantage of the depressed market by liquidating your non-529 investments (e.g. stocks and mutual funds) at low capital gains costï ¿ ½perhaps even generating a tax-saving capital lossï ¿ ½and reinvesting the proceeds in your 529 plan where future earnings can accumulate tax-free. This opportunity won't last long if the markets spring back faster than expected. In any event, don't let the stock market keep you from working towards your college-savings goals. For most families, 529 plans still offer attractive benefits if you believe the economy will eventually right itself. Depending on where you live, you may even be able to claim a state income tax deduction for your contributionsï ¿ ½a benefit you keep regardless of stock market performance. Posted October 24, 2008 The notice at the bottom of every advertisement for a 529 savings plan includes the warning: "Accounts may lose value." Millions of disheartened parents are now all-too-aware of just how accurate that statement is as they open their account statements and see that their 529 savings accounts have, in fact, lost money. The stock market swoon of recent weeks has not only caused account values to drop but in many cases has created losses as balances drop below original contributions. So what are parents to do as they fret about losing money in their college savings accounts at the same time that college costs continue their relentless rise? Here are some suggestions, based on the current age of your child. Ages 0-10 Take a deep breath and resist the urge to flee your 529 plan. Of course your account is down, but going forward the stock market still offers the best chances for your college savings account to appreciate at a rate equal to or faster than college cost increases. You'll have to stomach the ups and downs along the way but, if history is any guide, you should be rewarded in the end. In fact, with stocks currently on saleï ¿ ½at least according to Warren Buffetï ¿ ½you may want to pump as much cash as you can into your 529 plan. By investing in your 529 plan's age-based option, you'll be in position to benefit from a stock market rebound and can rest assured that by the time your child gets close to college age, your account will have automatically been switched to lower-risk bonds, money market, and/or stable-value funds. Ages 11-16 Any money you already have in your 529 plan has probably taken a hit, but you have at least a couple of years before the college bills start coming. Are you bullish on the stock market over the mid-term, or do you think the sinking economy suggests a protracted bear market? If you are bullish and willing to accept some market risk, you may want to switch to one of the "static" options in your 529 plan that stays invested mostly in stocks. Sticking with an age-based investment option has the unfortunate consequence of locking in your current losses as it shifts from stocks to bonds and money market funds. If you believe the market still has substantial downside momentum, you may want to head in the opposite direction and switch now to the most conservative option in your 529 planï ¿ ½either a money market portfolio, guaranteed or stable-value portfolio, or bank CD option. Ages 17 and older You are going to be pulling your money out of the 529 plan over the next few years, so why take on the risk of a volatile stock market? If you've been using your 529 plan's age-based option, you should be feeling relatively well-protected as most accounts in the age-based portfolios for college students and soon-to-be college students have held up nicely so far this year. However, if you opted for a 100% equity option, you are feeling substantial pain as the realization hits home that the depressed value of your account means you may have to take on more college loans than originally planned. If you don't have enough saved in your 529 plan to cover the full cost of college, you may want to target the use of your 529 funds to the last couple of years of college, hoping for a recovery in the meantime. Otherwise, you should consider cutting your losses and switching to the money market or guaranteed option in your 529 plan so as not to suffer any more if the markets were to continue hea ding south. All ages If you decide to switch investment options in your 529 plan, remember that your plan will allow only one switch in any calendar year. You can also change investments via rollover to another 529 plan, but only one tax-free rollover is permitted in any 12-month period. In either eventï ¿ ½investment switch or rolloverï ¿ ½the timing restrictions can be avoided if you change beneficiary at the same time. For example, with two children, you have maximum flexibility, since beneficiaries can be changed between siblings as often as you wish with no consequences. (Warning: intergenerational beneficiary changes can give rise to gift-tax problems.) With stock values at such low levels, you might want to consider making some tax-saving moves with your college savings. One such strategy would be to liquidate and request a refund all of your 529 accounts, but only if they net out to a loss. You pay no federal tax or penalty, and the loss can be claimed as a miscellaneous itemized deduction on your income tax return. The problem with this strategy is that miscellaneous itemized deductions may offer little or no tax relief due to the 2%-of-adusted-gross-income threshold as well as the workings of the alternative minimum tax. Then the question becomes what to do with the proceeds. If you want to put the money back into a 529 plan you'll have to watch out for the "wash sale" rules, for unintended rollover treatment, and for gift-tax consequences. You also need to look into the consequences of any such move on your state income taxes. An even better tax-saving strategy might be to take advantage of the depressed market by liquidating your non-529 investments (e.g. stocks and mutual funds) at low capital gains costï ¿ ½perhaps even generating a tax-saving capital lossï ¿ ½and reinvesting the proceeds in your 529 plan where future earnings can accumulate tax-free. This opportunity won't last long if the markets spring back faster than expected. In any event, don't let the stock market keep you from working towards your college-savings goals. For most families, 529 plans still offer attractive benefits if you believe the economy will eventually right itself. Depending on where you live, you may even be able to claim a state income tax deduction for your contributionsï ¿ ½a benefit you keep regardless of stock market performance. Posted October 24, 2008

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Lifebuoy- Soap of India - 1598 Words

Prepared By – Dhawandeep Singh(331) Neena Sankhyan(325) | NMIMS The LifeBuoy Story While brands have managed to upgrade their image and evolve together with their consumers – Lifebuoy is a great example, having moved from a carbolic, sweaty association to desirable health imagery – there has been no example of a brand that has moved to the top of the pole after residing at the bottom. The relaunch of the soap in 2002, 2004 again in 2006 have been turning points in its history. In 2004, Lifebuoy’s product offering was revamped with contemporary packaging and an upmarket look. While that went down well with existing users, new users were still elusive; they continued to perceive the product as a ‘cheap soap for poor people’. That†¦show more content†¦Although by projecting tough character of the child in the advertisement it again wanted to connect with the audiences on an emotional front .The confidence of ‘Lifebuoy mother’ with regard to the safety of her son underscores the long-standing brand benefit when she says â€Å"naha kar gaya hai... Koi darr nahin†. This transpired into appeal for the whole family which is tough and daring and always ready to take on newer challenges. â€Å"Little Gandhi Ad† The Little Boy picks up a broom; The boy surveys the messy street before sweeping it clean; The kid enjoys the Lifebuoy bath, washing away sweat and toil. The start of the advertisement with the small boy waking up before everybody shows a common child but who gets up on his own, he knows what to do, He has a mission in his mind, starts for work with putting bandana on his head. Shows a person focused and determined to do the work. All portraying the characteristics of a tough child. And he is a leader also trying to portray the soap more synonymous with leaders. He is being portrayed and compared in qualities to Gandhiji with dandi being replaced by a broom and spectacles of the child very much similar to Gandhiji’s. The atmosphere in which he is standing is very gloomy showcasing his fighting against all odds, comparisons with Gandhi. He starts on his own without waiting for anybody else to join him. And the people are shown getting amused by them and slowly other children startShow MoreRelatedLifebuoy in India: Product Life Cycle Strategies1542 Words   |  7 Pagescaution is needed when planning strategies for each product. 2. How did Lifebuoy strategies in the early stages of its PLC enabled the brand to become a leader? When Lifebuoy was introduced in the market, its positioning was a † promise to kill germs and keep the body healthy†, addressing one of the main problems the Indian market had: the plagues, and therefore exploring the market need for hygiene and health protection. Lifebuoy main strategy was to have low prices and low promotion, in order forRead More4ps of Lifebuoy1615 Words   |  7 PagesProduct: Variants Bar Soap: The classic red bar of Lifebuoy soap and its distinctive phenol smell has been synonymous with cleanliness. Body Wash: Lifebuoy Body Wash provides deep cleansing of pores, protecting against the three root causes of skin health problems – clogged pores, over-drying, and infection-causing germs. Lifebuoy ActiFresh variant which envelopes you in its fresh fragrance for up to 12 hours after a bath, protecting you from odor causing germs and helping you keep your activeRead MoreDoc, Docx, Pdf, Wps, Rtf, Odt683 Words   |  3 PagesBrandGuide FMCG Lifebuoy Lifebuoy lt; Lever Ayush.. |    | Liril 2000.. gt; | Lifebuoy | Parent Company | HUL | Category | Personal Care – Soap | Sector | FMCG | Tagline/ Slogan | Healthy hoga Hindustan; Lifebuoy hai jaha tandurusti hai waha | USP | Lifebuoy provides 100% better protection from germs as compared to ordinary soaps | STP | Segment | Personal Care – Soap, Hand Sanitizer, Hand Wash | Target Group | All households, to provide a 100% anti-bacterial soap for complete protectionRead MoreMarketing Strategies Of Soap And Product Life Cycle Of Lifebuoy Soap2252 Words   |  10 Pagessimply reverse the steps instead. â€Æ' Contents Executive Summary 1 Introduction 3 What is Consumer Buying Behaviour? 4 Overview of Personal Care Industry 5 Company Profile 5 Overview of the product 6 Marketing Strategies of Lifebuoy Soap – STP 7 Product Life Cycle of Lifebuoy Soap 8 Motivation of product 9 Perception of product 9 Learning of product 10 Attitude of product 10 Strength and Weakness 11 Recommendation 11 Conclusion 12 Reference 13 â€Æ' Introduction In the report, it is focusing on the consumerRead MorePlc of Lux1147 Words   |  5 Pages†¢Lux is the brand of UNILEVER INDIA LTD. It has been winning hearts of INDIAN consumersfor 80 years. †¢Lux stands for the promise of beauty and glamour as one of India s most trusted personalcare brands. LUX PRODUCTS : Lux had modified their product into Orchid touch Almond delight Energising fruit Aqua sparkle â€Å"GLAMOUR FACTOR† Introduction STAGE Lux launched the world’s first mass-market beauty soap in the US in 1924 amp; had been launched in India in 1929 †¢At that time thereRead MoreBrand Positioning of Lifebouy4075 Words   |  17 PagesMarket†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.02 3. About Lifebuoy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..04 3.1 A catalyst for discovery: The Industrial Revolution†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦04 4. Current Campaign†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..05 4.1 Global Handwahsing Day Coverage†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦05 5. Social Mission†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦06 5.1 5.2 Lifebuoy’s Work†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦06 Local Interventions†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦06 6. Soaps of Lifebuoy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..07 7. Lifebuoy in Bangladesh†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.08Read MoreReport on Dettol Soap1208 Words   |  5 PagesCASE STUDY ON Dettol Soap CONCEPT NOTE SUBMITTED TO – BY- Dr. Tanjul Saxena Dr. Yogesh Pande Dr. Vikash k. sinha DATE-24/01/2011 INDUSTRY- Soap Industry COMPANY- Reckitt Benckiser (India) Limited BUSINESSRead MoreHindustan Unilever Marketing Mix7687 Words   |  31 PagesHindustan Unilever [Rural marketing] Product Mix of HUL. HUL is Indias largest marketer of Soaps, Detergents and Home Care products. It has the country’s largest Personal Products business, leading in Shampoos, Skin Care Products, Colour Cosmetics and Deodorants. HUL is also the market leader in Tea, Processed Coffee, branded Wheat Flour, Tomato Products, and Ice cream, Soups, Jams and Squashes. Home amp; Personal Care †¢ Personal Wash †¢ Fabric Wash †¢ Home Care †¢ Oral Care †¢ Skin Care †¢ Hair CareRead MoreMarketing Analysis : Reckitt Benckiser India Ltd970 Words   |  4 Pagesand wounds. Dettol originated from India and launched their first store in 1933. It has been the most trusted brand in India for a long time. Dettol was not only to treat cuts and wounds but it became used in hospitals and nursing homes. Consumers also used it to clean their floor and to bathe. Dettol does not only have the Antiseptic Liquid product but has other product categories that they extended to such as, liquid hand wash, liquid body wash, toilet soaps, shaving creams and plaster stripsRead MoreMarketing Plan for Dettol Liquid Handwash2473 Words   |  10 PagesAPPENDIX†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦...15  1. Executive Summary Reckitt Benckiser India Ltd (RBIL) is a fully owned subsidiary of Reckitt Benckiser Plc., world’s No.1 Company in household cleaning. Reckitt Benckiser Plc came into being with the merger of Reckitt Colman Plc with Benckiser NV in 1999. The company has operations in 60 countries, sales in 180 countries and has had net revenues in excess of $5.5 billion. Reckitt Benckiser India Ltd (RBIL) manufactures and markets a wide range of products in Personal

Anxiety and Sport - 3155 Words

The relationship between anxiety and sports Introduction. Anxiety is a reaction that is measured using various scales through the observation of cognitive and physiological symptoms that become evident in reaction to a stimulus. In relation to sports, anxiety is often associated with an upcoming performance. Anxiety could also be enhanced by the intense competition offered by sports. Anxiety in connection with sports is a good topic for research since could affect a persons athletic performance either positively or negatively (Mellalieu, Hanton OBrien, 2004). Many researchers on different levels have studied the relationship between sports activities and various health benefits. In particular, sports activities are known to†¦show more content†¦In their article, Flett and Hewitt (2005) analyzed the effect of perfectionism to people, particularly focusing on deciding whether perfectionism leads to either adaptiveness or maladaptiveness. This goal is aimed through an analysis of research findings on perfectionism and its relationsh ip with exercise and sports (Flett Hewitt, 2005). Flett and Hewitt (2005) believe that while perfectionism may be important for the attainment of success in some sports, particularly those where â€Å"an error-free performance† is mandatory, perfectionism nevertheless leads to â€Å"self-defeating outcomes and unhealthy patterns of behavior† among athletes. This is the result of the extreme personality of people who strive too hard for perfection in their sports performance (Flett Hewitt, 2005). From the 1990s, there have already been studies that address questions involving the relationship of perfectionism and sports. Frost and Henderson (1991) conducted a study among women in varsity teams that assessed self-confidence, reactions, and competition anxiety of the participants. This study led to the conclusion that perfectionism causes athletes to be overly concerned about their mistakes, which in turn cause negative and adverse outcomes on sports performance and att itudes. These include â€Å"anxiety, low confidence, a failure orientation, and negative reactions to mistakes during competition† (Flett Show MoreRelatedEssay Anxiety in Sports938 Words   |  4 Pagesand state anxiety, and cognitive and somatic anxiety. Anxiety symptoms are numerous and unique to every athlete. Hoar suggests that athletes might report cognitive symptoms (eg. Inability to focus), somatic symptoms (eg. Sweaty palms), or both. The author discusses a variety of sources of anxiety and argues that it can have both positive and negative effects on performance. Anxiety has a significant affect on athletes and garners numerous research studies pertaining to performance. Anxiety, like motivationRead MoreCompetitive Anxiety in Sports Performance722 Words   |  3 PagesCompetitive Anxiety is one of the most widely researched topics in sport psychology (Woodman Hardy, 2001), focusing on the symptoms and consequences of Competitive Anxiety. The reason why Competitive Anxiety has been selected is because it is able to look at the effects of Anxiety on Sport Performance. I believe this is important as it distinguishes the difference between those who are able to calm competitive anxiety (such as Self Talk), which may suggest a reason as to why certain athletes achieveRead MoreCompetitive Anxiety Theory Analysis1724 Words   |  7 Pagesaffect their performance abilities. Stress, arousal, and anxiety are terms used to describe this condition. Competitive state-anxiety usually follows a pattern of subjective feelings such as tension and inadequacy, combined with heightened arousal of the autonomic nervous system. This anxiety type includes state and t rait dimensions both of which can show themselves as cognitive and somatic symptoms. Over the years many distinguished sports psychologists have developed various theories and testsRead MoreThe Effects Of Psychological Emotional On Sport Performance1582 Words   |  7 Pagesaffects of psychological emotional states on sport performance Literature Review In Martin and Gill’s experiment done in 1991, the relationship among trait and state psychological variables and performance in male high school distance runners were measured. 73 male middle and long distance runners ranging from 14 to 18 years of age were used to examine trait and state psychological variables and performance. A Competitive Orientation Inventory and Sport Orientation Questionnaire were used to measureRead MoreAn Outline of Performance Anxiety in Female Athletes871 Words   |  4 PagesAn Outline of Performance Anxiety in Female Athletes Gena Petrick 102160287 University of the Fraser Valley Roger Friesen February 21, 2012 Introduction Have you ever felt an overwhelming feeling of fear or nervousness, prior to competing in an important event? Did it affect your ability to perform? If so, you may be familiar with performance anxiety. An athlete suffering from performance anxiety often will perceive competitive situations as threatening, which can resultRead MoreSports Psychology And What Goes On The Brain Of An Athlete1194 Words   |  5 Pages Sports Psychology and What Goes On in the Brain of an Athlete Gabriel Cerna Community College of Aurora What Goes on in the Brain of an Athlete Every athlete that needs to compete has to be not only be physically ready, but they also need to be psychologically ready. Thousands of things go through the head of an athlete before the event even happens. They also have to think about what they are going to do while they are in the game. It is hard to react and perform at your best when a person’sRead MoreThe Effects Of Optimal Arousal And Performance1686 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction The effects of optimal arousal and performance has been studied extensively in psychology. Throughout sports psychology it is known that there is an optimal arousal level at which athletes perform their best. In previous studies surrounding the relationship between emotional states and performance, have been examined using the individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF). IZOF is a sport-specific framework that describes the relationship between emotional experiences and success on the basisRead MoreHelping Athletes to Perform Better under Pressure1541 Words   |  6 PagesWith it being known that pressure on an athlete to not let their team down increases anxiety, Otten and Barrett (2013) decided to look at which aspect of baseball (pitching or batting) would be most prone to choking. They looked over archives from the Baseball Reference website which includes statistics from the last 109 years. Hitting, pitching, and team-level statistics were all operationally defined and then examined. They found that pitching statistics were significantly correlated from regularRead MoreChildhood Depression : A Serious Disease That Affects People Of All Genders And Ages1589 Words   |  7 Pagesgenders and ages, but there are many ways to cope with depression. Evert and McGillivray (2014) studied the effects of cognitive behavioral therapy on the presence of depression symptoms, anxiety, and stress in males and females with autism. People with autism tend to experience greater levels of depression, anxiety, and stress than those without autism. Cognitive behavioral therapy includes several sessions addressing issues such as identifying stressors, emotions, relationships with one’s feelingsRead MoreExamining Discrepancies Between Self And Other Predictions Of Future Performance1212 Words   |  5 Pagesmay have an effect on the study’s results. JXH1022 Research in SSHES Laboratory Assignment Form Research area: Pressure/Anxiety Member of SHES: Gavin Lawrence; Research in the Institute for the Psychology of Elite Performance (IPEP) 3 papers that Gavin Lawrence has published: 1. Lawrence, G. P., Kingston, K. (2007). Skill acquisition for coaches. An introduction to sports coaching: from science and theory to practice. 2. Lawrence, G. P., Gottwald, V. M., Khan, M. A., Kramer, R. S. (2012). The

Monday, May 18, 2020

Essay about Arguement definition - 774 Words

Arguement definition Right Intentions Wrong Choice In an earlier story that was reported, one Samuel Mohammed burnt down a house in his West Palm Beach community. However, the question is not if Mohammed burnt the house down or not, because he admit to doing so. The question is did Mr. Mohammed commit a crime or not. Okay let me explain. The house was as abandoned building in his neighborhood and its use as a drug house was well known to the police and community. After making sure that, there was no one in the house, Mr. Mohammed torched it one night, stood about to watch the progress of the fire, and called the police and the fire department, which he admit to the police that he did in fact sets the house on fire. Mr.†¦show more content†¦His intentions were to burn down the drug house, and not to harm anyone. Then we have to see if Mr. Mohammed had justified reasons to burn the house. Mr. Mohammed burnt the house because he feels the house was a drain on the community; furthermore, he feels that it made the neighb orhood unsafe. Next, you need to know the definition of civil disobedience before we can discuss it. Civil disobedience means refusal to obey civil laws regarded as them unjust, by employing methods of passive resistance. Therefore, now you must prove the criminal charges of arson are unjust for this to be civil disobedience. While Mr. Mohammed did commit arson because he burnt down property that does not belong to him, he felted that his reasons were justified. The defendant felt this was the only way to rid his neighborhood of this problem. As stated in the beginning, the police knew of this house and did nothing about it. Although Mr. Mohammed knew he would be committing arson, he was left with no other choice. Furthermore, Mr. Mohammed admitted to setting the house on fire and calls the police and fire department, which lead one to believe that his intentions were not malicious. Finally, now that you know what arson and civil disobedience means and how Mr. Mohammed story stack up against both of them. You can finally answer the question, which is did Mr. Mohammed perform arson or was it civil disobedience. Well you now know to commit arson maliciousShow MoreRelatedManagers Can Be Developed, but Leaders Are Born, Not Made.1683 Words   |  7 PagesManagers can be developed, but leaders are born, not made. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Symptoms And Diagnosis Of Adhd And Sleep Disorder

Diagnosis: Matthew was tested and diagnosed with ADHD and sleep disorder by his psychiatrist. The assessment given to Matthew was the Vanderbilt assessment scale. The Vanderbilt Assessment Scale (VAS) has two parts: symptom assessment and an assessment of problems with performance at home, school, and other social settings. This rating scale is used by qualified professionals to screen for ADHD, as well as other disorders such as; oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, depression and anxiety in children. There is a parent rating scale version that contains 55-questions, and a teacher version that has 43 questions and focuses on behavior and observations at school. The VAS is a great tool for diagnosing ADHD, it is thorough and†¦show more content†¦Genetic risk when passed on from parents is known as inherited risk/liability; not all genetic risks are necessarily inherited. First degree relatives of those with ADHD are two to eight times more likely than relatives of unaffected individuals to also show ADHD.†(Thapar, Cooper, Eyre, Langley, 2013) Researchers are studying many different genes that may be more likely to contribute to people developing the disorder. If you know the genes involved then maybe one day researchers may be able to help prevent the disorder before any symptoms develop. If we learn more about specific genes it could lead to better treatment plans. Studies show that there may be a potential link between alcohol use and cigarette smoking during pregnancy and ADHD in children. Studies show that lead can be a factor in developing ADHD. Lead can be found in old buildings, paint, and plumbing fixtures. Some children are exposed to lead on a daily basis in their homes. There is a popular theory that refined sugar can cause ADHD or it can make symptoms worse. But research tends to debunk this theory more than it supports it. Researchers conducted a study in which they gave children foods containing sugar or a sugar substitute every other day. The children that received the sugar showed no difference in behavior or learning abilities. They were the same as those that ate the sugar substitute. More research needs to be done to support the

Bshs 395 The interview process Essay week 2 - 825 Words

The Interview Process Lolita Kyser BSHS/395 March 26th, 2013 Instructor Michael Moore The Interview Process The purpose of this essay is to explain the assessment interview process. This essay will feature an imaginary interview involving the client and helping process. The significance of the interview process initiates effective case management and entails direction of the clients goals (Kyser, 2014). Alyssa is a teenage adolescent girl that was brought into the Juvenile Detention Center by the police. The case manager asks Alyssa to, please fill out the form in her office, so that she can assist Alyssa. She identifies that she likes to fight other teenagers on the intake†¦show more content†¦For example, Alyssa is identifying strengths on the homework assignment (Woodside McClam, 2013). Discussing Confidentiality Alyssa is showing concern about who will view her record. The case manager explains that she knows privacy is important to Alyssa. The supervisor, consultant, and other staff who are working directly with Alyssa cannot view her record without her signed consent. In explaining to the client there are exceptions in cases of emergency where information may be shared without her consent. For example, suicide, homicide or other life-threatening situations (Woodside McClam, 2013). Strengths Based Approach Maintaining a plan for Alyssa is focusing on her strengths. This approach will keep her out of trouble and off the streets. For example, social support a referral to (PAL) Police Athletic League will help Alyssa get into basketball. The possibility of her getting on a team is positive. Another resource that will be helpful for Alyssa is that she receives wrap around services, which is team collaboration (Woodside McClam, 2013). Active Listening, Questioning and Paraphrasing Throughout the interview, active listening skills from the Probation Officer is necessary to understand and identify the source of Alyssas problems. Questioning skills, for example, not talking in big words. For example, â€Å"Do your parents have legal custody of you?† Alyssa the client may not

Columbias Rights Essay Example For Students

Columbias Rights Essay Colombia has endured vicious conflicts throughout its country for the past 36 years. It is considered to be the one of the most violent places in the world, with a murder rate of eight times greater than the United States. Colombias army troops, consisting of the 12th Brigade, rebels, guerillas and paramilitaries, have not made the horrendous war any better. Washington has singled out the 12th Brigade for its severe brutality towards civilians to the point of U.S aid suspension. The Colombian people constantly live in fear, not only from criminals, but their own troops as well. In the article, Columbian Army to Push Human Rights armed forces commander General Fernando Tapias says, Civilians should find, in a soldier, a defender of their fundamental rights and a guardian of democracy. Yet, this statement couldnt be farther from reality. Everyday Colombians are beaten, raped and shot to death by their own military and its about time someone took a stand for the rights of the innocent p eople. In the past couple years, the human rights cases against the government have dropped, the soldiers have been taught what is expectable on the battlefield and it is now become mandatory for them to carry a human rights booklet. This is because the issue of human rights has become public, and it is necessary to increase awareness in order to abolish the violence against civilians. It is shocks me to hear of the violent culture that engulfs Colombia. With its tremendously high rate of miracle fishing (Kidnapping), 200 bombs in less than 15 years, everyday assaults, robberies, spiking with scopolamine and murder rate of 77.5 per 100,000 people, Colombia almost makes hell look like a decent environment. The fact that hundreds of police officers, judges, investigators, presidential candidates, and of course thousands of Colombian citizens are murdered with the attitude of so it goes (Vonnegut, Slaughterhouse Five) shows that their Nation has been very badly damaged, psychologically as well as physically. Washingtons helping hand of hundreds of millions of dollars is apparently not serving its purpose. The war continues to escalate and concerns for human rights is forever increasing. Col. Julian Villate is proof that the Country does not have its priorities straight in addressing this issue. He says:Complying with International human rights standards is an easy way of obtaining international support to win this war. It is also the required standard of behavior for any human being. Why should one feel the need to comply with treating a person with simple respect, with giving second thoughts to clubbing then in the head or shooting them point blank? And why do they feel the need to commit unnecessary violence? These human rights standards should be a natural for the people, not something they have to think twice about and obey to. The United States is tremendously lucky to operate under system that isnt so threatened that they have to remind their people what human rights are, and require them to abide by the rules to win support in a war. Colombia has just begun the journey towards rights for its people, and its not going to be an easy one, but if achieved the results will be quite fulfilling after a lifetime of rage. Words/ Pages : 552 / 24